# Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC)

Guidance, navigation and control (abbreviated GNC, GN&C, or G&C and within the context of NASA operations, often pronounced 'Gintsee' or (IPA) ʤɪnsiː) is a branch of engineering dealing with the design of systems to control the movement of vehicles, especially, automobiles, ships, aircraft, and spacecraft. In many cases these functions can be performed by trained humans. However, because of the speed of, for example, a rocket's dynamics, human reaction time is too slow to control this movement. Therefore, systems—now almost exclusively digital electronic—are used for such control. Even in cases where humans can perform these functions, it is often the case that GNC systems provide benefits such as alleviating operator work load, smoothing turbulence, fuel savings, etc. In addition, sophisticated applications of GNC enable automatic or remote control.

Guidance refers to the determination of the desired path of travel (the "trajectory") from the vehicle's current location to a designated target, as well as desired changes in velocity, rotation and acceleration for following that path.
Navigation refers to the determination, at a given time, of the vehicle's location and velocity (the "state vector") as well as its attitude.
Control refers to the manipulation of the forces, by way of steering controls, thrusters, etc., needed to execute guidance commands while maintaining vehicle stability.

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## How I put the Google Maps Algorithm on my Autonomous Drone

13 min
Intermediate
Video
Application

This fully autonomous drone has an onboard computer ‘brain’, camera ‘eyes’, and an algorithm that generates the fastest path around unknown obstacles as they’re detected mid-flight. Let’s...

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## Geodetic Coordinates: Computing Latitude and Longitude

31 min
Intermediate
Video
Theory

In this video we show how to compute the geodetic latitude and terrestrial longitude if given the velocity north and east. This is useful for simulating a body moving over a spheroid Earth...

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## The Navigation Equations: Computing Position North, East, and Down

52 min
Intermediate
Video
Theory

In this video we show how to compute the inertial velocity of a rigid body in the vehicle-carried North, East, Down (NED) frame. This is achieved by rotating the velocity expressed in the...

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## Apollo's Flight Computer: Epitome of Engineering

81 min
Beginner
Video
Demonstration

The Apollo missions' success can be vastly accredited to the success of building a robust, one-of-a-kind flight computer for its guidance, navigation and control. Follow this video to...

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